What is the Retinal Detachment?
The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of our eyes that perceives light and consists of nerves. Retinal detachment, which is a serious eye disease, is the separation of the intact retinal layer from the inner surface of the eyeball to which it is attached. Tears form in the retina before detachment (detachment, dislocation), and this eye condition is called retinal detachment.
If the retinal tears are not repaired, the problem can spread to the entire retina and there is a decrease in vision. If the tears are intervened in a timely manner, the disease will be prevented without separating the retinal layer, that is, without detachment.
Retinal detachment can lead permanent vision loss if it didn’t treat. In the case of “detachment”, retinal surgical treatment is carried out underneath emergency conditions.
Retinal tears are manifested by symptoms such as light flashes, decreased vision, loss of part of the visual field, broken vision of objects, large or small vision because they have objects, flashes of light, black dots or fly flies.
Knowing the symptoms and visiting a doctor on time, that is, early detection is of great importance for treating the disease and preventing a possible state of blindness.
What are The Symptoms of Retinal Detachment?
Some Symptoms of Retinal Detachment:
- Small spots that appear to have been removed from your field of vision
- Blinking of light in one or both eyes
- Blurred vision
- Slowly decrease in lateral (peripheral) vision
- A curtain-like shadow on your visual field
Retinal Detachment Causes and Types
Sometimes the cause of retinal detachment is unclear, and there is nothing that can be done to prevent detachment. Therefore, early diagnosis is important.
The causes of retinal detachment are;
- High degree of myopia (more than number 6)
- Having suffered an eye injury and eye surgery
- Having undergone cataract surgery
- Decrease in the liquid layer of gel consistency in the eye due to advanced age
- Having a retinal detachment in the family history
It is the most common type of detachment. Even a small hole or tear in your the retina can be the cause it.
Degeneration of the periphery of the retina (in the edges): In these areas, the retina is thinned, and even a slight traction can create a tear.
- Vitreous detachment: As the vitreous gel (intraocular fluid) ages, it loses its gel consistency and becomes liquid in places, cavities called lacunae form in it, its volume decreases and it separates from the posterior pole of the eye. This is called vitreous detachment. Normally, posterior vitreous detachment is not dangerous. But sometimes during this detachment, ruptures in the retina may occur.
- High degree of myopia: In high degree myopia, there is both thinning and degeneration of the retinal periphery, and liquefaction of the vitreous. For this reason, there is a greater risk of retinal detachment in eyes with high degree myopia.
- Trauma: Blunt blows to the eye can lead to a sudden expansion of the eyeball to the sides and stretching of the retina, making it tear. Penetrating injuries of the eye, on the other hand, directly injure the retina, leading to retinal detachment and bleeding.
- • Developmental disorders: In some developmental and hereditary diseases, the retinal tissue is thin and the risk of retinal detachment is high.
- Tractional: Tractional retinal detachment (TRD) is the second most common types of retinal detachment. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination. TRD patients with macular involvement may present with sudden visual loss. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, premature retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and penetrating ocular trauma are among the ocular pathologies that most often cause TRD.
- Exudative: Exudative retinal detachments (ERD) develop secondary to the accumulation of subretinal fluid, which occurs due to a wide variety of causes. Vascular, congenital, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases can lead to ERD. Medical or surgical treatment of exudative retinal detachment varies depending on the underlying cause.
Causes of Exudative Retinal Detachments
- Uveitis diseases
- Age-related macular degeneration (yellow spot disease)
- Central serous chorioretinopathy
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy
- Kidney diseases that cause protein loss
Am I at Risk for Retinal Detachment?
In some patients, retinal detachment occurs more often. Cataract surgery if you have had (as a cause vitreous liquefaction and AVD), the implementation of YAG laser capsulotomy (anesthetics and causing inflammation), myopia, retinal detachment in the other eye be (RD S 10-20% of the two-sided), the family history, patient’s age, a history of trauma, the serum cortisol level fall, spring and summer months, miyotic (pupil narrowing drops) such as the use of risk factors are known.
Retinal Detachment Diagnosis
Your ophthalmologist will drip eye drops that enlarge your pupils and use a special tool to examine the retina so that it can detect a tear or detachment.
When diagnosing retinal diseases, an examination can be easily performed because the inside of the eye can be fully observed through the space created by the pupil.
Retinal Detachment Treatment
The first goal of surgical treatment is to stop the fluid passing through the tear by blocking the tear. Pumping, which is performed by the pigment epithelium, helps retina to calm down. Retinal detachment treatments include:
Laser (thermal) or freezing (cryopexy)
Occasionally your eye specialist diagnoses a retinal tear before the retina starts to tear. Your eye specialist uses a medical laser or freezing device to seal the tear. These devices create a scar to provide the retina stays in its place.